Armor Defense Ballistic Industry

For the materials for armouring properties such as strength, stiffness, weight [Gur19] and thermal insulation capacity [Röc17] are in the center. For this reason, the strengths of fiber composites and laminate materials are used in this area [Gur19]. In addition, smooth surfaces are particularly important because they significantly affect the behavior of cracks [Thy08].


Alumina (Al2O3)

Due to its excellent price-performance ratio, alumina (Al2O3) ceramics are predestined for many technical applications and the most widely used oxide ceramic material [KOL18]. Its low costs are due to the high availability of aluminum (3rd most common element in the earth’s crust) and the costeffective preparation and sintering processes.

Silicon Carbide (SiC)

The annual production of silicon carbide (SiC) exceeds 800,000 t, making it by far the most used non-oxide ceramic. In the past it has been used almost exclusively as an abrasive material, which still accounts for a major part of its usage. The development of new processes for the production of dense components with favourable mechanical properties enabled new fields of application.

Boron Carbide (B4C)

Boron carbide is one of the hardest known materials being only second to diamond. Its composition ranges from B4.3C to B10.4C. Technical boron carbide usually has a high carbon content and is labelled B4C, for convenience. Due to its high hardness and Young’s modulus it is very resistant against abrasion and thus used in blast or spray nozzles and as an abrasive.